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There are traces of human presence in the municipality, at least since the Paleolithic period. From the Roman times, today archaeological remains of a rustic villa in Santa Vitória do Ameixial and the “Tanque dos Mouros”, a water storage and supply structure, close to the place of the Martyrs. From the Germanic peoples, more precisely from the Visigoths, there are the remains of a necropolis in Herdade da Silveirona, in the parish of Santo Estêvão.
From the Muslim presence, the most relevant trace will be a possible horseshoe arch in one of the ancient doors of the Castelo de Veiros wall.
D. Afonso III grants a charter to Estremoz in 1258 and to Evoramonte in 1271. In turn, de Veiros only knows the charter of 1510, granted by D. Manuel I, but it is known that its term already existed in 1258.
In 1336 Queen Santa Isabel died in Estremoz, in her quarters located in the Medieval Castle, knowing that it was her habit to spend long periods in this village.
In the wars for independence, even in the 14th century, Estremoz was always a centre of first importance. It served several times as a quartering place for troops loyal to Nuno Álvares Pereira, who attacked Castilian invaders from here. The Holy Condestable left this land for the famous Battle of Atoleiros.